Ciro Santilli  Sponsor 中国独裁统治 China Dictatorship 新疆改造中心、六四事件、法轮功、郝海东、709大抓捕、2015巴拿马文件 邓家贵、低端人口、西藏骚乱

AI by capability

words: 2k articles: 69
Given enough computational power per dollar, AGI is inevitable, but it is not sure certain ever happen given the end of end of Moore's Law.
Alternatively, it could also be achieved genetically modified biological brains + brain in a vat.
Imagine a brain the size of a building, perfectly engineered to solve certain engineering problems, and giving hints to human operators + taking feedback from cameras and audio attached to the operators.
This likely implies transhumanism, and mind uploading.
Ciro Santilli joined the silicon industry at one point to help increase our computational capacity and reach AGI.
Ciro believes that the easiest route to full AI, if any, could involve Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games.

Principles of AGI

words: 526 articles: 7
Ciro Santilli has felt that perhaps what is missing in 2020's AGI research is:
  • the interface between:
    The key question is somewhat how to extract symbols out of the space-time continuous experiences.
  • more specialized accelerators that somehow interface with more generic artificial neural networks. Notably some kind of speialized processing of spacial elements is obviously hardcoded into the brain, see e.g. Section "Grid cell (2005)"
Forcing these boundaries to be tested was one of the main design goals of Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games.
In those games, for example:
  • when you press a button here, a door opens somewhere far away
  • when you touch certain types of objects, a chemical reaction may happen, but not other types of objects
Therefore, those continuous objects would also have "magic" effects that could not be explained by "simple" "what is touching what" ideas.
This point is beautifully argued in lots of different sources, and is clearly a pillar of AGI.
Perhaps one may argue that our deep learning layers do form some kind of hierarchy, e.g. this is very clear in certain models such as convolutional neural network. But many of those models cannot have arbitrarily deep hierarchies, which appears to be a fundamental aspect of intelligence.
How to Create a Mind:
The lists of steps in my mind are organized in hierarchies. I follow a routine procedure before going to sleep. The first step is to brush my teeth. But this action is in turn broken into a smaller series of steps, the first of which is to put toothpaste on the toothbrush. That step in turn is made up of yet smaller steps, such as finding the toothpaste, removing the cap, and so on. The step of finding the toothpaste also has steps, the first of which is to open the bathroom cabinet. That step in turn requires steps, the first of which is to grab the outside of the cabinet door. This nesting actually continues down to a very fine grain of movements, so that there are literally thousands of little actions constituting my nighttime routine. Although I may have difficulty remembering details of a walk I took just a few hours ago, I have no difficulty recalling all of these many steps in preparing for bed - so much so that I am able to think about other things while I go through these procedures. It is important to point out that this list is not stored as one long list of thousands of steps - rather, each of our routine procedures is remembered as an elaborate hierarchy of nested activities.
Human Compatible: TODO get exact quote. It was something along: life goal: save world from hunger. Subgoal: apply for some grant. Sub-sub-goal: eat, sleep, take shower. Sub-sub-sub-goal: move muscles to get me to table and open a can.
AGI architecture
words: 63 articles: 4
Video 1.
From Machine Learning to Autonomous Intelligence by Yann LeCun (2023)
. Source. After a bunch of B.S., LeCun goes on to describe his AGI architecture. Nothing ground breaking, but not bad either.
Elements of AGI
words: 34 articles: 3
This section is about ideas that are thought to be part of an AGI system.
Common sense
words: 19
Video 2.
My Job is to Open and Close Doors by Mattias Pilhede (2019)
. Source. An interesting humourous short meditation on common sense.
Instrumental goal
articles: 1

AGI research

words: 745 articles: 19
History of AGI research
words: 295 articles: 4
AGI blues
words: 42
Term invented by Ciro Santilli, similar to "nuclear blues", and used to describe the feeling that every little shitty job you are doing (that does not considerably help achieving AGI) is completely pointless given that we are likely close to AGI as of 2023.
Due to the failures of earlier generations, which believed that would quickly achieve AGI, leading to the AI winters, 21st researchers have been very afraid of even trying it, rather going only for smaller subste problems like better neural network designs, at the risk of being considered a crank.
While there is fundamental value in such subset problems, the general view to the final goal is also very important, we will likely never reach AI without it.
This is voiced for example in Superintelligence by Nick Bostrom (2014) section "Opinions about the future of machine intelligence" which in turn quotes Nils Nilsson:
There may, however, be a residual cultural effect on the AI community of its earlier history that makes many mainstream researchers reluctant to align themselves with over-grand ambition. Thus Nils Nilsson, one of the old-timers in the field, complains that his present-day colleagues lack the boldness of spirit that propelled the pioneers of his own generation:
Concern for "respectability" has had, I think, a stultifying effect on some AI researchers. I hear them saying things like, "AI used to be criticized for its flossiness. Now that we have made solid progress, let us not risk losing our respectability." One result of this conservatism has been increased concentration on "weak AI" - the variety devoted to providing aids to human thought - and away from "strong AI" - the variety that attempts to mechanize human-level intelligence
Nilsson’s sentiment has been echoed by several others of the founders, including Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, and Patrick Winston.
Don't be a pussy, AI researchers!!!
AGI conference
words: 21
It is hard to overstate how low the level of this conference seems to be at first sight. Truly sad.
AGI research entity
words: 429 articles: 11
Astera Institute
words: 79 articles: 2
By the rich founder of Mt. Gox and Ripple, Jed McCaleb.
Obelisk is the Artificial General Intelligence laboratory at Astera. We are focused on the following problems: How does an agent continuously adapt to a changing environment and incorporate new information? In a complicated stochastic environment with sparse rewards, how does an agent associate rewards with the correct set of actions that led to those rewards? How does higher level planning arise?
Astera Institute person
words: 10 articles: 1
Michael Nielsen
words: 10
Interesting dude, with some interest overlaps with Ciro Santilli, like Quantum computing:
words: 42 articles: 2
Marek Rosa's play thing.
Video 3.
AI Game - LLM-driven NPCs that can talk by Marek Rosa (2023)
. Source. Not the most amazing demo, but the idea is there. Seems to be a preview for AI People. The previous working title seems to have been AI Odyssey.
FutureAI (Future AI)
words: 262 articles: 3
It is a bit hard to decide if those people are serious or not. Sometimes it feels scammy, but sometimes it feels fun and right!
Particularly concerning is the fact that they are not a not-for-profit entity, and it is hard to understand how they might make money.
Charles Simon, the founder, is pretty focused in how natural neurons work vs artificial neural network models. He has some good explanations of that, and one major focus of the project is their semi open source spiking neuron simulator BrainSimII. While Ciro Santilli believe sthat there might be insight in that, he also has doubts if certain modules of the brain wouldn't be more suitable coded direclty in regular programming languages with greater ease and performance.
FutureAI appears to be Charles' retirement for fun project, he is likely independenty wealthy. Well done.
Video 4.
Creativity and AGI by Charles Simon's at AGI-22 (2022)
. Source. Sounds OK!
Video 5.
Machine Learning Is Not Like Your Brain by Future AI (2022)
. Source. Contains some BrainSimII demos.
words: 34
The video from shows a demo of the possibly non open source version. They have a GUI neuron viewer and editor, which is kind of cool.
Video 6.
Machine Learning Is Not Like Your Brain by Charles Simon (2022)
. Source.
Not having a manipulator claw is a major issue with this one.
But they also have a co-simulation focus, which is a bit of a win.
Charles Simon
words: 26
Basically it looks like the dude got enough money after selling some companies, and now he's doing cooler stuff without much need of money. Not bad.
words: 21 articles: 3
Ben Goertzel
words: 21 articles: 2 What do my fellow AI researchers think of Ben Goertzel and his research?
words: 8 articles: 1
Ben Goertzel's fog computing project to try and help achieve AGI.


words: 25
Term invented by Ciro Santilli to refer to problems that can only be solved once we have AGI.
It is somewhat of a flawed analogy to NP-complete.

AGI test

words: 24 articles: 5
articles: 1
That's Ciro Santilli's favorite. Of course, there is a huge difference between physical and non physical jobs. But one could start with replacing desk jobs!
GitHub awesome repos:
AGI-complete in general? Obviously. But still, a lot can be done. See e.g.:

Generative AI (GenAI)

words: 712 articles: 25
Original paper: Section "GAN paper".
The GAN paper itself does a bit of this, cool hello world:
AI brittleness and robustness
words: 17 articles: 3
AI brittleness
words: 17 articles: 1
Generative adversarial network illustrates well AI brittleness. The input looks obvious for a human, but gets completely misclassified by a deep learning agent.
This is going to be the most important application of generative AI. Especially if we ever achieve good text-to-video.
Image generators plus human ranking: Heavenly Bodies Part 1: Sister's Mary First Act. Pornhub title: "AI generated Hentai Story: Sexy Nun alternative World(Isekai) Stable Diffusion" Interesting concept, slide-narrated over visual novel. The question is how they managed to keep face consistency across images.

Generative AI by modality

words: 597 articles: 16
Text-to-text model
words: 220 articles: 9
Open source machine translation
words: 3 articles: 2
words: 3 articles: 1
OpenNMT CLI front-end.
Hello world:
Large language model (LLM)
words: 217 articles: 4
LLM game
words: 30 articles: 1
Published as: Generative Agents: Interactive Simulacra of Human Behavior by Park et al.
Video 7.
AI Agents Behaving Like Humans by Prompt Engineering (2023)
. Source.
Open source LLM
words: 187 articles: 1
words: 187
Highly automated wrapper for various open source LLMs.
curl | sh
ollama run llama2
And bang, a download later, you get a prompt. On P14s it runs on CPU and generates a few tokens at a time, which is quite usable for a quick interactive play.
As mentioned at the downloads to under /usr/share/ollama/.ollama/models/ and ncdu tells me:
--- /usr/share/ollama ----------------------------------
    3.6 GiB [###########################] /.ollama
    4.0 KiB [                           ]  .bashrc
    4.0 KiB [                           ]  .profile
    4.0 KiB [                           ]  .bash_logout
We can also do it non-interactively with:
/bin/time ollama run llama2 'What is quantum field theory?'
which gave me:
0.13user 0.17system 2:06.32elapsed 0%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 17280maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+2203minor)pagefaults 0swaps
but note that there is a random seed that affects each run by default.
Some other quick benchmarks from Amazon EC2 GPU, on Nvidia T4:
0.07user 0.05system 0:16.91elapsed 0%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 16896maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+1960minor)pagefaults 0swaps
On Nvidia A10G:

0.03user 0.05system 0:09.59elapsed 0%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 17312maxresident)k
8inputs+0outputs (1major+1934minor)pagefaults 0swaps
So it's not too bad, a small article in 10s.
It tends to babble quite a lot by default, but eventually decides to stop.
TODO is it possible to make it deterministic on the CLI? There is a "seed" parameter somewhere:
Text-to-image model
words: 355 articles: 4
Open source text-to-image model
words: 355 articles: 3
This just works, but it is also so incredibly slow that it is useless (or at least the quality it reaches in the time we have patience to wait from), at least on any setup we've managed to try, including e.g. on an Nvidia A10G on a g5.xlarge. Running:
time imagine "a house in the forest"
would likely take hours to complete.
Conda install is a bit annoying, but gets the job done. The generation quality is very good.
Someone should package this better for end user "just works after Conda install" image generation, it is currently much more of a library setup.
Tested on Amazon EC2 on a g5.xlarge machine, which has an Nvidia A10G, using the AWS Deep Learning Base GPU AMI (Ubuntu 20.04) image.
First install Conda as per Section "Install Conda on Ubuntu", and then just follow the instructions from the README, notably the Reference sampling script section.
git clone
cd stable-diffusion/
git checkout 08ab4d326c96854026c4eb3454cd3b02109ee982
conda env create -f environment.yaml
conda activate ldm
mkdir -p models/ldm/stable-diffusion-v1/
wget -O models/ldm/stable-diffusion-v1/model.ckpt
python scripts/ --prompt "a photograph of an astronaut riding a horse" --plms 
This took about 2 minutes and generated 6 images under outputs/txt2img-samples/samples, includining an image outputs/txt2img-samples/grid-0000.png which is a grid montage containing all the six images in one:
TODO how to change the number of images?
A quick attempt at removing their useless safety features (watermark and NSFW text filter) is:
diff --git a/scripts/ b/scripts/
index 59c16a1..0b8ef25 100644
--- a/scripts/
+++ b/scripts/
@@ -87,10 +87,10 @@ def load_replacement(x):
 def check_safety(x_image):
     safety_checker_input = safety_feature_extractor(numpy_to_pil(x_image), return_tensors="pt")
     x_checked_image, has_nsfw_concept = safety_checker(images=x_image, clip_input=safety_checker_input.pixel_values)
-    assert x_checked_image.shape[0] == len(has_nsfw_concept)
-    for i in range(len(has_nsfw_concept)):
-        if has_nsfw_concept[i]:
-            x_checked_image[i] = load_replacement(x_checked_image[i])
+    #assert x_checked_image.shape[0] == len(has_nsfw_concept)
+    #for i in range(len(has_nsfw_concept)):
+    #    if has_nsfw_concept[i]:
+    #        x_checked_image[i] = load_replacement(x_checked_image[i])
     return x_checked_image, has_nsfw_concept

@@ -314,7 +314,7 @@ def main():
                             for x_sample in x_checked_image_torch:
                                 x_sample = 255. * rearrange(x_sample.cpu().numpy(), 'c h w -> h w c')
                                 img = Image.fromarray(x_sample.astype(np.uint8))
-                                img = put_watermark(img, wm_encoder)
+                                # img = put_watermark(img, wm_encoder)
                       , f"{base_count:05}.png"))
                                 base_count += 1
but that produced 4 black images and only two unfiltered ones. Also likely the lack of sexusl training data makes its porn suck, and not in the good way.
words: 22
This was the Holy Grail as of 2023, when text-to-image started to really take off, but text-to-video was miles behind.

AI research entity

words: 16 articles: 3

AI researcher

words: 16 articles: 2

Yohei Nakajima

words: 16
He does lots of little experiments which is cool.
No research papers but has citations: which is cool.

AI alignment

words: 28 articles: 2
As highlighted e.g. at Human Compatible by Stuart J. Russell (2019), this AI alignment intrinsically linked to the idea of utility in economy.
See e.g.: Human Compatible

AI safety

words: 10
Basically ensuring that good AI alignment allows us to survive the singularity.

Path to AGI

words: 1k articles: 53
There are two main ways to try and reach AGI:
Which one of them to take is of of the most important technological questions of humanity according to Ciro Santilli
There is also an intermediate area of research/engineering where people try to first simulate the robot and its world realistically, use the simulation for training, and then transfer the simulated training to real robots, see e.g.: realistic robotics simulation.

AI training robot

words: 233 articles: 6
It doesn't need to be a bipedal robot. We can let Boston Dynamics worry about that walking balance crap.
It could very well intsead be on wheels like arm on tracks.
Or something more like a factory with arms on rails as per:
An arm with a hand and a camera are however indispensable of course!
Figure 1.
Algovivo demo
. A JavaScript + WebAssembly implementation of an energy-based formulation for soft-bodied virtual creatures.
Ciro Santilli wonders how far AI could go from a room with a bank account an Internet connection.
It would have to understand that it must keep its bank account high to buy power.
And it would start to learn about the world and interact with it to get more money.
Likely it would become a hacker and steal a bunch, that's likely the easiest appraoch.
In that scenario, Internet bandwidth would likely be its most precious resources, as that is how it would interact with the world to learn from it and make money.
Compute power and storage would come next as resources.
And of course, once it got to cloud computing, which might be immmediately and thus invalidate this experient, things would just go nuts more and more.

AI training robot dataset

words: 12 articles: 1
Terrible name, but very interesting dataset:
TODO: any simulation integration to it?
Video 8.
RoboCat by Google DeepMind (2023)
. Source.
Has anybody done this seriously? Given a supercomputer, what amazing human-like robot behaviour we can achieve?

AI game (AGI via simulation)

words: 1k articles: 45
Video 9.
Our Final Invention - Artificial General Intelligence by Sciencephile the AI (2023)
. Source. AGI via simulation section.
Ciro Santilli defines an "AI game" as:
a game that is used to train AI, in particular one that was designed with this use case in mind, and usually with the intent of achieving AGI, i.e. the game has to somehow represent a digital world with enough analogy to the real world so that the AGI algorithms developed there could also work on the real world
Most games played by AI historically so far as of 2020 have been AI for games designed for humans: Human game used for AI training.
Ciro Santilli took a stab at an AI game: Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games, but he didn't sink too much/enough into that project.
A closely related and often overlapping category of simulations are artificial life simulations.

Human game used for AI training

words: 29 articles: 2
This section is about games initially designed for humans, but which ended up being used in AI development as well, e.g.:

Game AI

words: 121 articles: 11
Game AI is an artificial intelligence that plays a certain game.
It can be either developed for serious purposes (e.g. AGI development in AI games), or to make games for interesting for humans.
Game AI research
words: 35 articles: 3
Game AI research lab
words: 35 articles: 2
The Quora question:
A good way to find labs is to go down the issues section of projects such as:
and then stalk them to see where they are doing their PhDs.
Principal investigator: Simon M. Lucas.
Game AI by game genre
words: 9 articles: 1
Video 10.
AI in Melee is broken by Melee Moments (2023)
. Source.
Game AI competition
words: 48 articles: 3
TODO quick summary of game rules? Perhaps:
Some mechanics:
  • inter agent communication
  • compute power is limited by limiting Java bytecode count execution per bot per cycle
Video 11.
Battlecode Final Tournament 2023
. Source.
Video 12.
Introduction to Battlecode by MIT OpenCourseWare (2014)
. Source.
Ah, shame, they are a bit weak.

AI game by type

words: 130 articles: 8
We define a "Procedural AI training game" as an AI training game in which parts of the game are made with procedural generation.
In more advanced cases, the generation itself can be done with AI. This is a possible Path to AGI which reduces the need for human intervention in meticulously crafting the AI game: AI training AI.
AI game world geometry
words: 79 articles: 6
2D AI game
words: 20 articles: 2
3D AI game
words: 59 articles: 2
Video 13.
Nvidia's little fighter charater (2023)
. Source.
Football simulation
words: 54 articles: 1
Video 14.
From Motor Control to Team Play in Simulated Humanoid Football by Ali Eslami (2023)
. Source. Likely a reupload by DeepMind employee:
Video 15.
DeepMind’s AI Trained For 5 Years by Two Minute Papers (2023)
. Source. The 5 years bullshit is of course in-game time clickbait, they simulate 1000x faster than realtime.
We define this category as AI games in which agents are able to produce or consume natural language.
It dawned on Ciro Santilli that it would be very difficult to classify an agent as an AGI if tthat agent can't speak to take orders, read existing human generated documentation, explain what it is doing, or ask for clarification.
Video 16.
Human player test of DMLab-30 Select Described Object task by DeepMind (2018)
. Source. This is one of the games from DeepMind Lab.
Video 17.
WorldGPT by Nhan Tran (2023)
. Source. Not the most amazing demo, but it is a start.

List of AI games

words: 255 articles: 4
AI game by DeepMind
words: 255 articles: 3
Video 18.
Creating Multimodal Interactive Agents from DeepMind by Two Minute Papers (2023)
. Source.
Video 19.
Open-Ended Learning Leads to Generally Capable Agents by DeepMind (2021)
. Short name: XLand. Whitepaper:
DeepMind Lab
words: 137 has some good games with video demos on YouTube, though for some weird reason they are unlistd.
TODO get one of the games running. Instructions: This may "Complete installation script for Ubuntu 20.04".
It is interesting how much overlap some of those have with Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games
The games are 3D, but most of them are purely flat, and the 3D is just a waste of resources.
Video 20.
Human player test of DMLab-30 Collect Good Objects task by DeepMind (2018)
. Source.
Video 21.
Human player test of DMLab-30 Exploit Deferred Effects task by DeepMind (2018)
. Source.
Video 22.
Human player test of DMLab-30 Select Described Object task by DeepMind (2018)
. Source. Some of their games involve language instructions from the use to determine the desired task, cool concept.
Video 23.
Human player test of DMLab-30 Fixed Large Map task by DeepMind (2018)
. Source. They also have some maps with more natural environments.
DeepMind Lab2D (2020)
words: 82 articles: 1
Gridworld version of DeepMind Lab.
Open sourced in 2020:
A tiny paper:
Very similar to gvgai, Julian Togelius actually called them out on that: DeepMind Lab2D vs gvgai.
TODO get running, publish demo videos on YouTube.
Figure 2. Source.
At called out on DeepMind Lab2D for not giving them credit on prior work!
This very much looks like like GVGAI which was first released in 2014, been used in dozens (maybe hundreds) of papers, and for which one of the original developers was Tom Schaul at DeepMind...
As seen from though, DeepMind sponsored them at some point.
Or is real word data necessary, e.g. with robots?
Fundamental question related to Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games.

Entity creating AI games

words: 303 articles: 13
DeepMind (2010-)
words: 150 articles: 7
They seem to do some cool stuff.
They have also declined every one of Ciro Santilli's applications for software engineer jobs before any interview. Ciro always wondered what does it take to get an interview with them. Lilely a PhD? Oh well.
In the early days at least lots of gamedev experience was enough though:
DeepMind project
words: 95 articles: 6
AlphaGo (2016)
words: 95 articles: 5
AlphaGo Zero (2017)
words: 8 articles: 1
Figure 3.
AlphaGo Zero cheat sheet by David Foster (2017)
. Source.
Generalization of AlphaGo Zero that plays Go, Chess and shogi. explains that it beat Stockfish 8. But then Stockfish was developed further and would start to beat it. We know this because although AlphaZero was closed source, they released the trained artificial neural network, so it was possible to replay AlphaZero at its particular stage of training.
gvgai (2014-2020)
words: 91 articles: 1 (dead as of 2023)
The project kind of died circa 2020 it seems, a shame. Likely they funding ran out. The domain is dead as of 2023, last archive from 2022: Marks as funded by DeepMind. Researchers really should use university/GitHub domain names!
Similar goals to Ciro's 2D reinforcement learning games, but they were focusing mostly on discrete games.
They have some source at: TODO review
A published book at:
From QMUL Game AI Research Group:
From other universities:
TODO check:
  • Ahmed Khalifa
  • Jialin Liu
This kind of died at some point checked as of 2023.
Julian Togelius cites it e.g. at:
words: 47 articles: 1
In 2019, OpenAI transitioned from non-profit to for-profit
so what's that point of "Open" in the name anymore??

Implications of AGI

words: 25 articles: 2
The rise of powerful AI will either be the best or the worst thing ever to happen to humanity. We do not yet know which.

Artificial intelligence paradigm

words: 41 articles: 1

Expert system

words: 41
These were the earlier attempts at decision making systems that could replace intellectual jobs.
Their main problem is that it is very costly to acquire data, which is kind of the main issue that large language models address with their ability to consume natural language input.
The key takeaway is that setting an explicit value function to an AGI entity is a good way to destroy the world due to poor AI alignment. We are more likely to not destroy by creating an AI whose goals is to "do want humans what it to do", but in a way that it does not know before hand what it is that humans want, and it has to learn from them. This approach appears to be known as reward modeling.
Some other cool ideas:
  • a big thing that is missing for AGI in the 2010's is some kind of more hierarchical representation of the continuous input data of the world, e.g.:
    • intelligence is hierarchical
    • we can group continuous things into higher objects, e.g. all these pixels I'm seeing in front of me are a computer. So I treat all of them as a single object in my mind.
  • game theory can be seen as part of artificial intelligence that deals with scenarios where multiple intelligent agents are involved
  • probability plays a crucial role in our everyday living, even though we don't think too much about it every explicitly. He gives a very good example of the cost/risk tradeoffs of planning to the airport to catch a plane. E.g.:
    • should you leave 2 days in advance to be sure you'll get there?
    • should you pay an armed escort to make sure you are not attacked in the way?
  • economy, and notably the study of the utility, is intrinsically linked to AI alignment
Good points:



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