Ciro Santilli OurBigBook.com $£ Sponsor €¥ 中国独裁统治 China Dictatorship 新疆改造中心、六四事件、法轮功、郝海东、709大抓捕、2015巴拿马文件 邓家贵、低端人口、西藏骚乱 # Calculus Well summarized as "the branch of mathematics that deals with limits". ## Mathematical analysis words: 10 An fancy name for calculus, with the "more advanced" connotation. ## Limit (mathematics) words: 139 articles: 7 The fundamental concept of calculus! The reason why the epsilon delta definition is so venerated is that it fits directly into well known methods of the formalization of mathematics, making the notion completely precise. ### Convergent series ### Continuous function words: 54 articles: 3 #### Continuous problems are simpler than discrete ones words: 44 This is a general philosophy that Ciro Santilli, and likely others, observes over and over. Basically, continuity, or higher order conditions like differentiability seem to impose greater constraints on problems, which make them more solvable. Some good examples of that: #### Discrete words: 10 articles: 1 Something that is very not continuous. Notably studied in discrete mathematics. ##### Discretization ### Infinity () words: 53 Chuck Norris counted to infinity. Twice. There are a few related concepts that are called infinity in mathematics: • limits that are greater than any number • the cardinality of a set that does not have a finite number of elements • in some number systems, there is an explicit "element at infinity" that is not a limit, e.g. projective geometry ### L'Hôpital's rule (limit of a ratio) ## Derivative words: 312 articles: 19 ### Chain rule words: 45 articles: 1 Here's an example of the chain rule. Suppose we want to calculate: So we have: and so: Therefore the final result is: #### Multivariable chain rule ### Differentiable function articles: 4 #### Smoothness #### Infinitely differentiable function () articles: 2 ##### Bump function articles: 1 ###### Flat top bump function ### Maxima and minima words: 67 articles: 3 Given a function : we want to find the points of the domain of where the value of is smaller (for minima, or larger for maxima) than all other points in some neighbourhood of . In the case of Functionals, this problem is treated under the theory of the calculus of variations. #### Lifegard problem #### Derivative test #### Saddle point ### Newton dot notation ### Partial derivative words: 132 articles: 4 #### Partial derivative notation words: 132 articles: 3 ##### Partial derivative symbol () words: 64 Nope, it is not a Greek letter, notably it is not a lowercase delta. It is just some random made up symbol that looks like a letter D. Which is of course derived from delta, which is why it is all so damn confusing. I think the symbol is usually just read as "D" as in "d f d x" for . ##### Partial label partial derivative notation (, ) ##### Partial index partial derivative notation (, ) words: 68 This notation is not so common in basic mathematics, but it is so incredibly convenient, especially with Einstein notation as shown at Section "Einstein notation for partial derivatives": This notation is similar to partial label partial derivative notation, but it uses indices instead of labels such as , , etc. ### Total derivative words: 68 The total derivative of a function assigns for every point of the domain a linear map with same domain, which is the best linear approximation to the function value around this point, i.e. the tangent plane. E.g. in 1D: and in 2D: ### Directional derivative ## Integral words: 778 articles: 19 ### Area words: 1 articles: 1 #### Volume words: 1 ### Riemann integral words: 12 The easy and less generic integral. The harder one is the Lebesgue integral. ### Lebesgue integral words: 765 articles: 15 "More complex and general" integral. Matches the Riemann integral for "simple functions", but also works for some "funkier" functions that Riemann does not work for. Ciro Santilli sometimes wonders how much someone can gain from learning this besides the beauty of mathematics, since we can hand-wave a Lebesgue integral on almost anything that is of practical use. The beauty is good reason enough though. #### Lebesgue integral vs Riemann integral words: 219 articles: 1 Advantages over Riemann: ##### Real world applications of the Lebesgue integral words: 50 In "practice" it is likely "useless", because the functions that it can integrate that Riemann can't are just too funky to appear in practice :-) Its value is much more indirect and subtle, as in "it serves as a solid basis of quantum mechanics" due to the definition of Hilbert spaces. #### Lebesgue measurable #### Lebesgue integral of is complete but Riemann isn't words: 490 articles: 11 is: And then this is why quantum mechanics basically lives in : not being complete makes no sense physically, it would mean that you can get closer and closer to states that don't exist! TODO intuition ##### Riesz-Fischer theorem words: 207 articles: 4 A measurable function defined on a closed interval is square integrable (and therefore in ) if and only if Fourier series converges in norm the function: ###### is complete words: 1 TODO ###### Fourier basis is complete for words: 169 articles: 2 Riesz-Fischer theorem is a norm version of it, and Carleson's theorem is stronger pointwise almost everywhere version. Note that the Riesz-Fischer theorem is weaker because the pointwise limit could not exist just according to it: norm sequence convergence does not imply pointwise convergence. ###### norm sequence convergence does not imply pointwise convergence words: 40 There are explicit examples of this. We can have ever thinner disturbances to convergence that keep getting less and less area, but never cease to move around. If it does converge pointwise to something, then it must match of course. ###### Carleson's theorem words: 99 The Fourier series of an function (i.e. the function generated from the infinite sum of weighted sines) converges to the function pointwise almost everywhere. The theorem also seems to hold (maybe trivially given the transform result) for the Fourier series (TODO if trivially, why trivially). Only proved in 1966, and known to be a hard result without any known simple proof. This theorem of course implies that Fourier basis is complete for , as it explicitly constructs a decomposition into the Fourier basis for every single function. TODO vs Riesz-Fischer theorem. Is this just a stronger pointwise result, while Riesz-Fischer is about norms only? ##### Lp space () words: 231 articles: 5 Integrable functions to the power , usually and in this text assumed under the Lebesgue integral because: Lebesgue integral of is complete but Riemann isn't words: 215 articles: 3 for . is by far the most important of because it is quantum mechanics states live, because the total probability of being in any state has to be 1! has some crucially important properties that other don't (TODO confirm and make those more precise): ###### Plancherel theorem words: 135 articles: 2 Some sources say that this is just the part that says that the norm of a function is the same as the norm of its Fourier transform. Others say that this theorem actually says that the Fourier transform is bijective. The comment at math.stackexchange.com/questions/446870/bijectiveness-injectiveness-and-surjectiveness-of-fourier-transformation-define/1235725#1235725 may be of interest, it says that the bijection statement is an easy consequence from the norm one, thus the confusion. ###### The Fourier transform is a bijection in words: 53 As mentioned at Section "Plancherel theorem", some people call this part of Plancherel theorem, while others say it is just a corollary. This is an important fact in quantum mechanics, since it is because of this that it makes sense to talk about position and momentum space as two dual representations of the wave function that contain the exact same amount of information. ###### Every Riemann integrable function is Lebesgue integrable words: 7 ## Measure theory words: 46 Main motivation: Lebesgue integral. The key idea, is that we can't define a measure for the power set of R. Rather, we must select a large measurable subset, and the Borel sigma algebra is a good choice that matches intuitions. ## Fourier series words: 658 articles: 10 Approximates an original function by sines. If the function is "well behaved enough", the approximation is to arbitrary precision. Fourier's original motivation, and a key application, is solving partial differential equations with the Fourier series. Can only be used to approximate for periodic functions (obviously from its definition!). The Fourier transform however overcomes that restriction: The Fourier series behaves really nicely in , where it always exists and converges pointwise to the function: Carleson's theorem. ### Applications of the Fourier series words: 30 articles: 1 #### Solving partial differential equations with the Fourier series words: 30 Separation of variables of certain equations like the heat equation and wave equation are solved immediately by calculating the Fourier series of initial conditions! Other basis besides the Fourier series show up for other equations, e.g.: ### Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) words: 348 articles: 2 Input: a sequence of complex numbers . Output: another sequence of complex numbers such that: Intuitively, this means that we are braking up the complex signal into sinusoidal frequencies: • : is kind of magic and ends up being a constant added to the signal because • : sinusoidal that completes one cycle over the signal. The larger the , the larger the resolution of that sinusoidal. But it completes one cycle regardless. • : sinusoidal that completes two cycles over the signal • ... • : sinusoidal that completes cycles over the signal and is the amplitude of each sine. We use Zero-based numbering in our definitions because it just makes every formula simpler. Motivation: similar to the Fourier transform: • compression: a sine would use N points in the time domain, but in the frequency domain just one, so we can throw the rest away. A sum of two sines, only two. So if your signal has periodicity, in general you can compress it with the transform • noise removal: many systems add noise only at certain frequencies, which are hopefully different from the main frequencies of the actual signal. By doing the transform, we can remove those frequencies to attain a better signal-to-noise In particular, the discrete Fourier transform is used in signal processing after a analog-to-digital converter. Digital signal processing historically likely grew more and more over analog processing as digital processors got faster and faster as it gives more flexibility in algorithm design. Sample software implementations: #### Discrete Fourier transform of a real signal words: 85 See sections: "Example 1 - N even", "Example 2 - N odd" and "Representation in terms of sines and cosines" of www.statlect.com/matrix-algebra/discrete-Fourier-transform-of-a-real-signal The transform still has complex numbers. Summary: • is real Therefore, we only need about half of to represent the signal, as the other half can be derived by conjugation. "Representation in terms of sines and cosines" from www.statlect.com/matrix-algebra/discrete-Fourier-transform-of-a-real-signal then gives explicit formulas in terms of . #### Fast Fourier transform words: 6 An efficient algorithm to calculate the discrete Fourier transform. ### Fourier transform words: 189 articles: 3 Continuous version of the Fourier series. Can be used to represent functions that are not periodic: math.stackexchange.com/questions/221137/what-is-the-difference-between-fourier-series-and-fourier-transformation while the Fourier series is only for periodic functions. Of course, every function defined on a finite line segment (i.e. a compact space). Therefore, the Fourier transform can be seen as a generalization of the Fourier series that can also decompose functions defined on the entire real line. As a more concrete example, just like the Fourier series is how you solve the heat equation on a line segment with Dirichlet boundary conditions as shown at: Section "Solving partial differential equations with the Fourier series", the Fourier transform is what you need to solve the problem when the domain is the entire real line. #### Multidimensional Fourier transform words: 36 Lecture notes: #### Fourier inversion theorem words: 20 A set of theorems that prove under different conditions that the Fourier transform has an inverse for a given space, examples: #### Laplace transform words: 41 ### History of the Fourier series words: 10 First published by Fourier in 1807 to solve the heat equation. ## Topology words: 1k articles: 62 Topology is the plumbing of calculus. The key concept of topology is a neighbourhood. Just by havin the notion of neighbourhood, concepts such as limit and continuity can be defined without the need to specify a precise numerical value to the distance between two points with a metric. As an example. consider the orthogonal group, which is also naturally a topological space. That group does not usually have a notion of distance defined for it by default. However, we can still talk about certain properties of it, e.g. that the orthogonal group is compact, and that the orthogonal group has two connected components. ### Covering space words: 63 articles: 1 Basically it is a larger space such that there exists a surjection from the large space onto the smaller space, while still being compatible with the topology of the small space. We can characterize the cover by how injective the function is. E.g. if two elements of the large space map to each element of the small space, then we have a double cover and so on. #### Double cover ### Neighbourhood (mathematics) words: 5 The key concept of topology. ### Topological space ### Manifold words: 272 articles: 7 We map each point and a small enough neighbourhood of it to , so we can talk about the manifold points in terms of coordinates. Does not require any further structure besides a consistent topological map. Notably, does not require metric nor an addition operation to make a vector space. Manifolds are cool. Especially differentiable manifolds which we can do calculus on. A notable example of a Non-Euclidean geometry manifold is the space of generalized coordinates of a Lagrangian. For example, in a problem such as the double pendulum, some of those generalized coordinates could be angles, which wrap around and thus are not euclidean. #### Atlas (topology) words: 12 articles: 1 Collection of coordinate charts. The key element in the definition of a manifold. ##### Coordinate chart #### Covariant derivative words: 20 A generalized definition of derivative that works on manifolds. TODO: how does it maintain a single value even across different coordinate charts? #### Differentiable manifold words: 25 TODO find a concrete numerical example of doing calculus on a differentiable manifold and visualizing it. Likely start with a boring circle. That would be sweet... #### Tangent space words: 98 articles: 1 TODO what's the point of it. Bibliography: ##### Tangent vector to a manifold words: 5 A member of a tangent space. #### One-form words: 23 www.youtube.com/watch?v=tq7sb3toTww&list=PLxBAVPVHJPcrNrcEBKbqC_ykiVqfxZgNl&index=19 mentions that it is a bit like a dot product but for a tangent vector to a manifold: it measures how much that vector derives along a given direction. ### Metric (mathematics, ) words: 254 articles: 10 A metric is a function that give the distance, i.e. a real number, between any two elements of a space. A metric may be induced from a norm as shown at: Section "Metric induced by a norm". Because a norm can be induced by an inner product, and the inner product given by the matrix representation of a positive definite symmetric bilinear form, in simple cases metrics can also be represented by a matrix. #### Metric space words: 196 articles: 9 Canonical example: Euclidean space. ##### Metric space vs normed vector space vs inner product space words: 47 TODO examples: ##### Complete metric space words: 37 In plain English: the space has no visible holes. If you start walking less and less on each step, you always converge to something that also falls in the space. One notable example where completeness matters: Lebesgue integral of is complete but Riemann isn't. ##### Normed vector space words: 21 articles: 2 ###### Inner product space words: 21 articles: 1 Subcase of a normed vector space, therefore also necessarily a vector space. ###### Inner product words: 12 Appears to be analogous to the dot product, but also defined for infinite dimensions. ##### Norm (mathematics, ) words: 74 articles: 2 Vs metric: • a norm is the size of one element. A metric is the distance between two elements. • a norm is only defined on a vector space. A metric could be defined on something that is not a vector space. Most basic examples however are also vector spaces. ###### Norm induced by an inner product words: 11 An inner product induces a norm with: ###### Metric induced by a norm words: 19 In a vector space, a metric may be induced from a norm by using subtraction: ##### Pseudometric space words: 14 Metric space but where the distance between two distinct points can be zero. Notable example: Minkowski space. ### Compact space ### Dense set ### Connected space words: 26 articles: 3 #### Connected component words: 26 When a disconnected space is made up of several smaller connected spaces, then each smaller component is called a "connected component" of the larger space. See for example the #### Simply connected space articles: 1 ##### Loop (topology) ### Homotopy words: 422 articles: 7 #### Generalized Poincaré conjecture words: 422 articles: 6 There are two cases: • (topological) manifolds • differential manifolds Questions: are all compact manifolds / differential manifolds homotopic / diffeomorphic to the sphere in that dimension? • for topological manifolds: this is a generalization of the Poincaré conjecture. Original problem posed, for topological manifolds. Last to be proven, only the 4-differential manifold case missing as of 2013. Even the truth for all was proven in the 60's! Why is low dimension harder than high dimension?? Surprise! AKA: classification of compact 3-manifolds. The result turned out to be even simpler than compact 2-manifolds: there is only one, and it is equal to the 3-sphere. For dimension two, we know there are infinitely many: classification of closed surfaces • for differential manifolds: Not true in general. First counter example is . Surprise: what is special about the number 7!? Counter examples are called exotic spheres. Totally unpredictable count table:  Dimension | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | Smooth types | 1 | 1 | 1 | ? | 1 | 1 | 28 | 2 | 8 | 6 | 992 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 16256 | 2 | 16 | 16 | 523264 | 24 | is an open problem, there could even be infinitely many. Again, why are things more complicated in lower dimensions?? ##### Exotic sphere ##### Poincaré conjecture ##### Classification of closed surfaces words: 167 articles: 3 So simple!! You can either: • cut two holes and glue a handle. This is easy to visualize as it can be embedded in : you just get a Torus, then a double torus, and so on • cut a single hole and glue aMöbius strip in it. Keep in mind that this is possible because the Möbius strip has a single boundary just like the hole you just cut. This leads to another infinite family that starts with: A handle cancels out a Möbius strip, so adding one of each does not lead to a new object. You can glue a Mobius strip into a single hole in dimension larger than 3! And it gives you a Klein bottle! Intuitively speaking, they can be sees as the smooth surfaces in N-dimensional space (called an embedding), such that deforming them is allowed. 4-dimensions is enough to embed cover all the cases: 3 is not enough because of the Klein bottle and family. ###### Torus ###### Möbius strip ###### Klein bottle words: 9 sphere with two Möbius strips stuck into it as per the classification of closed surfaces. ### Real coordinate space () words: 137 articles: 24 #### Real line () #### Real plane () #### Real coordinate space of dimension three () #### Real coordinate space of dimension four (, 4D) words: 18 articles: 1 Important 4D spaces: ##### Visualizing 4D words: 15 Simulate it. Just simulate it. #### Dimension articles: 2 ##### Infinite dimensional articles: 1 ###### Finite dimensional #### Complex coordinate space () words: 87 articles: 1 ##### Complex dot product words: 87 The complex dot product is defined as: E.g. in : We can see therefore that this is a form, and a positive definite because: Just like the usual dot product, this will be a positive definite symmetric bilinear form by definition. #### Euclidean space words: 32 articles: 13 with extra structure added to make it into a metric space. ##### Euclidean metric signature matrix words: 2 ##### Cartesian coordinate system ##### Polar coordinate system articles: 1 ###### Spherical coordinate system ##### Pythagorean theorem ##### Non-Euclidean geometry words: 20 articles: 7 ###### Elliptic geometry words: 20 articles: 2 ###### Model of elliptic geometry words: 20 articles: 1 ###### Projective elliptic geometry words: 20 Each elliptic space can be modelled with a real projective space. The best thing is to just start thinking about the real projective plane. ###### Hyperbolic gemoetry articles: 3 ###### Hyperbolic functions articles: 2 ###### Hyperbolic sine ###### Hyperbolic cossine ## Distribution (mathematics) words: 157 articles: 4 Generalize function to allow adding some useful things which people wanted to be classical functions but which are not, It therefore requires you to redefine and reprove all of calculus. For this reason, most people are tempted to assume that all the hand wavy intuitive arguments undergrad teachers give are true and just move on with life. And they generally are. One notable example where distributions pop up are the eigenvectors of the position operator in quantum mechanics, which are given by Dirac delta functions, which is most commonly rigorously defined in terms of distribution. Distributions are also defined in a way that allows you to do calculus on them. Notably, you can define a derivative, and the derivative of the Heaviside step function is the Dirac delta function. ### Dirac delta function words: 41 articles: 2 The "0-width" pulse distribution that integrates to a step. There's not way to describe it as a classical function, making it the most important example of a distribution. Applications: #### Green's function #### Heaviside step function ### Normal distribution ## Complex analysis words: 223 articles: 8 The surprising thing is that a bunch of results are simpler in complex analysis! ### Complex analysis bibliography articles: 1 #### Complex Analysis by Juan Carlos Ponce Campuzano ### Holomorphic function words: 62 Being a complex holomorphic function is an extremely strong condition. The existence of the first derivative implies the existence of all derivatives. Another extremely strong consequence is the identity theorem. "Holos" means "entire" in Greek, so maybe this is a reference to the fact that due to the identity theorem, knowing the function on a small open ball implies knowing the function everywhere. ### Analytic continuation words: 147 articles: 4 visualizing the Riemann hypothesis and analytic continuation by 3Blue1Brown (2016) is a good quick visual non-mathematical introduction is to it. The key question is: how can this continuation be unique since we are defining the function outside of its original domain? The answer is: due to the identity theorem. #### Visualizing the Riemann hypothesis and analytic continuation by 3Blue1Brown (2016) words: 13 Good ultra quick visual non-mathematical introduction to the Riemann hypothesis and analytic continuation. #### Identity theorem words: 96 articles: 2 Essentially, defining an holomorphic function on any open subset, no matter how small, also uniquely defines it everywhere. This is basically why it makes sense to talk about analytic continuation at all. One way to think about this is because the Taylor series matches the exact value of an holomorphic function no matter how large the difference from the starting point. Therefore a holomorphic function basically only contains as much information as a countable sequence of numbers. ##### Riemann zeta function words: 25 articles: 1 ###### Riemann hypothesis words: 25 visualizing the Riemann hypothesis and analytic continuation by 3Blue1Brown (2016) is a good quick visual non-mathematical introduction is to it. ## Hilbert space words: 57 articles: 1 Key for quantum mechanics, see: mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, the most important example by far being . ### Complete basis words: 44 Finding a complete basis such that each vector solves a given differential equation is the basic method of solving partial differential equation through separation of variables. The first example of this you must see is solving partial differential equations with the Fourier series. Notable examples: ## Differential equation words: 2k articles: 80 ### Euler number () words: 5 articles: 3 #### Natural logarithm (, ) words: 5 articles: 2 ##### Logarithmic integral function (, Logarithm integral) words: 4 Sample software implementations: ##### Euler-Mascheroni constant words: 1 ### Linear differential equation words: 142 articles: 1 The name is a bit obscure if you don't think in very generalized terms right out of the gate. It refers to a linear polynomial of multiple variables, which by definition must have the super simple form of: and then we just put the unknown and each derivative into that simple polynomial: except that now the are not just constants, but they can also depend on the argument (but not on or its derivatives). Explicit solutions exist for the very specific cases of: #### Holonomic function ### Order of a differential equation words: 7 Order of the highest derivative that appears. ### Ordinary differential equation (ODE) articles: 5 #### Existence and uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations articles: 2 ##### Peano existence theorem ##### Picard-Lindelöf theorem #### System of ordinary differential equations articles: 1 ##### System of linear ordinary differential equations ### Partial differential equation (PDE) words: 2k articles: 51 #### Analytical method to solve a partial differential equation words: 30 articles: 1 ##### Separation of variables words: 30 Naturally leads to the Fourier series, see: solving partial differential equations with the Fourier series, and to other analogous expansions: One notable application is the solution of the Schrödinger equation via the time-independent Schrödinger equation. #### Numerical method to solve a partial differential equation words: 40 articles: 3 The finite element method is one of the most common ways to solve PDEs in practice. ##### Variational formulation of a partial differential equation words: 14 articles: 1 Used for example in FreeFem and FEniCS Project as the input description of the PDEs, TODO why. ###### Weak solution ##### Finite element method words: 13 TODO understand, give intuition, justification of bounds and JavaScript demo. #### Important partial differential equation words: 686 articles: 30 The majority likely comes from physics: ##### Laplace's equation words: 111 articles: 5 Like a heat equation but for functions without time dependence, space-only. TODO confirm: does the solution of the heat equation always converge to the solution of the Laplace equation as time tends to infinity? In one dimension, the Laplace equation is boring as it is just a straight line since the second derivative must be 0. That also matches our intuition of the limit solution of the heat equation. ###### Legendre polynomials words: 15 ###### Poisson's equation words: 9 articles: 1 Generalization of Laplace's equation where the value is not necessarily 0. ###### Uniqueness theorem for Poisson's equation ###### Harmonic function words: 18 articles: 1 A solution to Laplace's equation. ###### Spherical harmonic words: 14 Correspond to the angular part of Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates after using separation of variables as shown at: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_harmonics#Laplace's_spherical_harmonics ##### Heat equation words: 110 articles: 1 Besides being useful in engineering, it was very important historically from a "development of mathematics point of view", e.g. it was the initial motivation for the Fourier series. Some interesting properties: • TODO confirm: for a fixed boundary condition that does not depend on time, the solutions always approaches one specific equilibrium function. This is in contrast notably with the wave equation, which can oscillate forever. • TODO: for a given point, can the temperature go down and then up, or is it always monotonic with time? • information propagates instantly to infinitely far. Again in contrast to the wave equation, where information propagates at wave speed. Sample numerical solutions: ###### Heat equation solution with Fourier series words: 1 ##### Wave equation words: 459 articles: 21 Describes perfect lossless waves on the surface of a string, or on a water surface. ###### Wave equation solver words: 64 This section talks about solvers/simulators dedicated solving the wave equation. Of course, any serious solver will likely be able to solve a wider range of PDE, so this section contains mostly fun toys. For more serious stuff see: Section "PDE solver". JavaScript toy solvers: ###### Wave equation solution with Fourier series words: 5 ###### The wave equation can be seen as infinitely many infinitesimal coupled oscillators words: 29 TODO confirm, see also: coupled oscillators. And then this idea can be used to define/motivate quantum field theory in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators with second quantization. ###### Lossy 1D Wave Equation ###### Wave articles: 1 ###### Envelope (waves) ###### Polarization words: 30 articles: 1 ###### String polarization words: 23 This is about the polarization of a string in 3D space. That is the first concept of polarization you must have in mind! ###### Diffraction words: 36 articles: 4 ###### Huygens-Fresnel principle words: 36 articles: 3 ###### Kirchhoff's diffraction formula words: 36 articles: 2 Approximation to Huygens-Fresnel principle. ###### Fraunhofer diffraction words: 17 Far field approximation to Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, i.e. when the plane of observation is far from the object diffracting. ###### Fresnel diffraction words: 16 Near field approximation to Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, i.e. when the plane of observation is near the object diffracting. ###### Refraction ###### Resonance words: 183 Resonance is a really cool thing. Examples: Perhaps a key insight of resonance is that the reonant any lossy system tends to look like the resonance frequency quite quickly even if the initial condition is not the resonant condition itself, because everything that is not the resonant frequency interferes destructively and becomes noise. Some examples of that: • striking a bell or drum can be modelled by applying an impuse to the system • playing a pipe instrument comes down to blowing a piece that vibrates randomly, and then leads the pipe to vibrate mostly in the resonant frequency. Likely the same applies to bowed string instruments, the bow must be creating a random vibration. • playing a plucked string instrument comes down to initializing the system to an triangular wave form and then letting it evolve. TODO find a simulation of that! Another cool aspect of resonance is that it was kind of the motivation for de Broglie hypothesis, as de Broglie was kind of thinking that electroncs might show discrete jumps on atomic spectra because of constructive interference. ###### Wave interference words: 19 articles: 1 ###### Interference pattern words: 19 What you see along a line or plane in a wave interference. Notably used for the pattern of the double-slit experiment. ###### 2D wave equation on a circular domain words: 53 articles: 2 ###### Bessel function words: 53 articles: 1 Shows up when trying to solve 2D wave equation on a circular domain in polar coordinates with separation of variables, where we have to decompose the initial condition in termes of a fourier-Bessel series, exactly like the Fourier series appears when solving the wave equation in linear coordinates. For the same fundamental reasons, also appears when calculating the Schrödinger equation solution for the hydrogen atom. ###### Fourier-Bessel series words: 8 ###### Helmholtz equation words: 3 #### Existence and uniqueness of solutions of partial differential equations words: 79 If you have a PDE that models physical phenomena, it is fundamental that: • there must exist a solution for every physically valid initial condition, otherwise it means that the equation does not describe certain cases of reality • the solution must be unique, otherwise how are we to choose between the multiple solutions? Unlike for ordinary differential equations which have the Picard–Lindelöf theorem, the existence and uniqueness of solution is not well solved for PDEs. #### Partial differential equation solver words: 767 articles: 6 ##### FreeFem words: 550 articles: 3 Started in 1987 and written in Pascal, by the French from Pierre and Marie Curie University, the French are really strong in numerical analysis. Ciro wasn't expecting it to be as old. Ported to C++ in 1992. The fact that French wrote it can be seen in the documentation, for example doc.freefem.org/tutorials/index.html uses file extension mycode.edp instead of mycode.pde where dep stands for "Équation aux dérivées partielles". Besides the painful build, using FreeFem is relatively simple, as can be seen from the examples on the website. They do use a domain-specific language on the examples, which appears to be the main/only interface, which is a bad thing, Ciro would rather have a Python API as the "main API", which is more the approach taken by the FEniCS Project, but so be it. This domain-specific language business means that you always stumble upon basic stuff you want to do but can't, and then you have to think about how to share data between the simulation and the plotting. The plotting notably is super complex and they can't implement all of what people want, upstream examples often offload that to gnuplot. This is potentially a big advantage of FEniCS Project. It nice though that they do have some graphics out of the box, as that allows to quickly debug common problems. Uses variational formulation of a partial differential equation, which is not immediately obvious to beginners? The introduction doc.freefem.org/tutorials/poisson.html gives an ultra quick example, but your are mostly on your own with that. On Ubuntu 20.04, the freefem is a bit out-of-date (3.5.8, there isn't even a tag for that in the GitHub repo, and refs/tags/release_3_10 is from 2010!) and fails to run the examples from the website. It did work with the example package though, but the output does not have color, which makes me sad :-) sudo apt install freefem freefem-examples freefem /usr/share/doc/freefem-examples/heat.pde So let's just compile the latest v4.6 it from source, on Ubuntu 20.04: sudo apt build-dep freefem git clone https://github.com/FreeFem/FreeFem-sources cd FreeFem-sources # Post v4.6 with some fixes. git checkout 3df0e2370d9752801ac744b11307b14e16743a44 # Won't apply automatically due to tab hell. # https://superuser.com/questions/607410/how-to-copy-paste-tab-characters-via-the-clipboard-into-terminal-session-on-gnom git apply <<'EOS' diff --git a/3rdparty/ff-petsc/Makefile b/3rdparty/ff-petsc/Makefile index dc62ab06..13cd3253 100644 --- a/3rdparty/ff-petsc/Makefile +++ b/3rdparty/ff-petsc/Makefile @@ -204,7 +204,7 @@$(SRCDIR)/tag-make-real:$(SRCDIR)/tag-conf-real$(SRCDIR)/tag-install-real :$(SRCDIR)/tag-make-real cd$(SRCDIR) && $(MAKE) PETSC_DIR=$(PETSC_DIR) PETSC_ARCH=fr install
-test -x "type -p otool" && make changer
-    cd $(SRCDIR) &&$(MAKE) PETSC_DIR=$(PETSC_DIR) PETSC_ARCH=fr check + #cd$(SRCDIR) && $(MAKE) PETSC_DIR=$(PETSC_DIR) PETSC_ARCH=fr check
test -e $(DIR_INSTALL_REAL)/include/petsc.h test -e$(DIR_INSTALL_REAL)/lib/petsc/conf/petscvariables
touch $@ @@ -293,7 +293,6 @@$(SRCDIR)/tag-tar:$(PACKAGE) -tar xzf$(PACKAGE)
patch -p1 < petsc-hpddm.patch
ifeq ($(WIN32DLLTARGET),) - patch -p1 < petsc-metis.patch endif touch$@
$(PACKAGE): EOS autoreconf -i ./configure --enable-download --enable-optim --prefix="$(pwd)/../FreeFem-install"
./3rdparty/getall -a
cd 3rdparty/ff-petsc
make petsc-slepc
cd -
./reconfigure
make -jnproc
make install
cd ../FreeFem-install
PATH="${PATH}:$(pwd)/bin" ./bin/FreeFem++ ../FreeFem-sources/examples/tutorial/
Ciro's initial build experience was a bit painful, possibly because it was done on a relatively new Ubuntu 20.04 as of June 2020, but in the end it worked: github.com/FreeFem/FreeFem-sources/issues/141
The main/only dependency appears to be PETSc which is used by default, which is a good sign, as that library appears to automatically parallelize a single input to several backends (single CPU, MPI, GPU) so you know things will scale up as you reach simulations.
The problem is that it compiling such a complex dependency opens up much more room for hard to solve compilation errors, and takes a lot more time.
###### FreeFem examples
words: 7 articles: 2
###### heat-dirichlet.1d.freefem
words: 3
1-dimensional heat equation example with Dirichlet boundary condition
###### heat-dirichlet-2d-freefem
words: 4
2-dimensional heat equation example with Dirichlet boundary condition:
##### FEniCS Project
words: 217 articles: 1
One big advantage over FreeFem is that it uses plain old Python to describe the problems instead of a domain-specific language. Matplotlib is used for plotting by default, so we get full Python power out of the box!
One downside is that its documentation is a Springer published PDF link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-52462-7.pdf which is several years out-of-date (tested with FEnics 2016.2. Newbs. This causes problems e.g.: stackoverflow.com/questions/53730427/fenics-did-not-show-figure-nameerror-name-interactive-is-not-defined/57390687#57390687
system of partial differential equations are mentioned at: link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-52462-7.pdf 3.5 "A system of advection–diffusion–reaction equations". You don't need to manually iterate between the equations.
sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install --no-install-recommends fenics
sudo apt install fenics
python3 -m pip install -u matplotlib
Before 2020-06, it was failing with:
E: The repository 'http://ppa.launchpad.net/fenics-packages/fenics/ubuntu focal Release' does not have a Release file.
but they seem to have created the Ubuntu 20.04 package as of 2020-06, so it now worked! askubuntu.com/questions/866901/what-can-i-do-if-a-repository-ppa-does-not-have-a-release-file
TODO heat equation hello world.
###### Hans Petter Langtangen
words: 64
It should be mentioned that when you start Googling for PDE stuff, you will reach Han's writings a lot under his GitHub Pages: hplgit.github.io/, and he is one of the main authors of the FEniCS Project.
Unfortunately he died of cancer in 2016, shame, he seemed like a good educator.
He also published to GitHub pages with his own crazy markdown-like multi-output markup language: github.com/hplgit/doconce.
Rest in peace, Hans.

#### System of partial differential equations

words: 37
In many important applications, what you have to solve is not just a single partial differential equation, but multiple partial differential equations coupled to each other. This is the case for many key PDEs including:

#### Classification of second order partial differential equations into elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic

words: 47 articles: 4
One major application of this classification is that different boundary conditions are suitable for different types of partial differential equations as explained at: which boundary conditions lead to existence and uniqueness of a second order PDE.
##### Which boundary conditions lead to existence and uniqueness of a second order PDE
words: 27
www.cns.gatech.edu/~predrag/courses/PHYS-6124-12/StGoChap6.pdf 6.1 "Classification of PDE's" clarifies which boundary conditions are needed for existence and uniqueness of each type of second order of PDE:

### Phase space

words: 9
This idea comes up particularly in the phase space coordinate of Hamiltonian mechanics.

### Boundary condition

words: 308 articles: 9

#### Initial condition

words: 22
Basically a subset of the boundary condition for when one of the parameters is time and we are specifying values for the time 0.

#### Dirichlet boundary condition

words: 13
Specifies fixed values.
Numerical examples:

#### Neumann boundary condition

words: 243 articles: 4
Specifies the derivative in a direction normal to the boundary.
##### Cauchy boundary condition
words: 50
Sets both a Dirichlet boundary condition and a Neumann boundary condition for a single part of the boundary.
We understand intuitively that this imposes stricter requirements on solutions, which makes it easier to guarantee uniqueness, but also harder to have existence. TODO intuitively why hyperbolic need this extra level of restriction.
##### Robin boundary condition
words: 81
Linear combination of a Dirichlet boundary condition and Neumann boundary condition at each point of the boundary.
Examples:
• heat equation when metal plaque is immersed in a large external environment of fixed temperature.
In this case, the normal derivative at the boundary is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the boundary and the fixed temperature of the external environment.
The result as time tends to infinity is that the temperature of the plaque tends to that of the environment.
##### Open boundary condition
words: 89
In the context of wave-like equations, an open-boundary condition is one that "lets the wave go through without reflection".
This condition is very useful when we want to simulate infinite domains with a numerical method. Ciro Santilli wants to do this all the time when trying to come up with demos for his physics writings.
Here are some resources that cover such boundary conditions:
##### Mixed boundary condition
words: 7
Multiple boundary conditions for different parts of the boundary.

#### Time dependent boundary condition

words: 30
Most commonly, boundary conditions such as the Dirichlet boundary condition are taken to be fixed values in time.
But it also makes sense to think about cases where those values vary in time.

### Control theory

words: 70 articles: 3
This basically adds one more ingredient to partial differential equations: a function that we can select.
And then the question becomes: if this function has such and such limitation, can we make the solution of the differential equation have such and such property?
It's quite fun from a mathematics point of view!
Control theory also takes into consideration possible discretization of the domain, which allows using numerical methods to solve partial differential equations, as well as digital, rather than analogue control methods.

## Series (mathematics)

words: 36 articles: 8

### Power series

words: 36 articles: 7

#### Analytic function

words: 36 articles: 4
##### Sine and cossine
words: 36 articles: 3
###### Sinusoidal
words: 36
A function that is either a sine or cosine, i.e. we don't know or care where the origin is exactly.
This is particularly relevant in electronics, where the oscilloscope's time origin is set to match the wave.

## Gradient, Divergence, Curl, and Laplacian

words: 293 articles: 7

### Curl (mathematics, )

words: 11
Points in the direction in which a wind spinner spins fastest.

### Nabla symbol ()

words: 97 articles: 1
As if Greek letters weren't enough, physicists and mathematicians also like to make up tons of symbols, some of which look like the could actually be Greek letters!
Nabla is one of those: it was completely made up in modern times, and just happens to look like an inverted upper case delta to make things even more confusing!
Nabla means "harp" in Greek, which looks like the symbol.

#### Del

words: 33
Oh, and if it weren't enough, mathematicians have a separate name for the damned nabla symbol : "del" instead of "nabla".
TODO why is it called "Del"? Is is because it is an inverted uppercase delta?

### Divergence (, )

words: 67
Takes a vector field as input and produces a scalar field.
Mnemonic: it gives out the amount of fluid that is going in or out of a given volume per unit of time.
Therefore, if you take a cubic volume:
• the input has to be the 6 flows across each face, therefore 3 derivatives
• the output is the variation of the quantity of fluid, and therefore a scalar

words: 89
Takes a scalar field as input and produces a vector field.
Mnemonic: the gradient shows the direction in which the function increases fastest.
Think of a color gradient going from white to black from left to right.
Therefore, it has to:
• take a scalar field as input. Otherwise, how do you decide which vector is larger than the other?
• output a vector field that contains the direction in which the scalar increases fastest locally at each point. This has to give out vectors, since we are talking about directions

### Laplace operator (, )

words: 29 articles: 1
Can be denoted either by:
Our default symbol is going to be:

words: 12

## Infinitesimal

words: 10
Just use limit instead, please. The French are particularly guilty of this.