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Classification of closed surfaces

| 🗖 nosplit | ↑ parent "Generalized Poincaré conjecture" | words: 215 | descendant words: 244 | descendants: 3
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So simple!! You can either:
  • cut two holes and glue a handle. This is easy to visualize as it can be embedded in : you just get a Torus, then a double torus, and so on
  • cut a single hole and glue aMöbius strip in it. Keep in mind that this is possible because the Möbius strip has a single boundary just like the hole you just cut. This leads to another infinite family that starts with:
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A handle cancels out a Möbius strip, so adding one of each does not lead to a new object.
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You can glue a Mobius strip into a single hole in dimension larger than 3! And it gives you a Klein bottle!
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Intuitively speaking, they can be sees as the smooth surfaces in N-dimensional space (called an embedding), such that deforming them is allowed. 4-dimensions is enough to embed cover all the cases: 3 is not enough because of the Klein bottle and family.
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Ancestors

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