Just like computers, biological systems can be seen as being composed of several different layers of complexity.
For humans specifically: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_systems_of_the_human_body
- journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005268 Could a Neuroscientist Understand a Microprocessor? by Jonas and Kording (2017)
Source code: github.com/neuronsimulator/nrn
www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fninf.2019.00063/fullCoreNEURON: An Optimized Compute Engine for the NEURON Simulator (2019) Merged back into mainstream: github.com/BlueBrain/CoreNeuron
Studies biology from a more global point of view, if putting all little pieces of an organism make up the final biological function.
Very good metabolism database.
Database of promoter.
Here's a good example of what you can get out of it: E. Coli K-12 MG1655
The exact opposite of argument from poor design!
For specific species:
Allele means "other" in Greek.
For some reason, this is one of the things that makes Ciro Santilli want to puke the most. More than surgery or blood.
- www.reuters.com/markets/commodities/hoxton-farms-raises-22-million-cultivated-animal-fat-2022-10-20/ Hoxton Farms, cultured animal fat
This is something worth investigating!
- 2023 www.uktech.news/foodtech/investors-lab-grown-meat-startups-regulation-20230216 mentions the company Ivy Farm
- 2022 vegconomist.com/cultivated-cell-cultured-biotechnology/ivy-farm-europes-biggest-cultivated-meat-facility/ Ivy Farm Unveils Europe’s Biggest Cultivated Meat Pilot Production Facility
This is fundamental in bioinformatics for two reasons:
- when you sequence the DNA of a new species, you can guess what each protein does by comparing it with similar proteins in other species that you have already studied
- when doing DNA sequencing, and specially short-read DNA sequencing, you generally need to align the reads to reference genomes to know where you are inside the entire genome, and then be able to spot mutations, notably single-nucleotide polymorphisms
BLAST is a sequence alignment.
The bane of multicellularity.
Cancer cells are obviously selected against anti-cancer mechanism, which when they manage to evade, they reproduce uncontrollably, gaining more and more momentum.
Obesity is an extremely serious disease that is very hard to cure, and has deep psychological implications.
Whatever it is that biology studies.
Ciro Santilli just always feels that what can be classified as "artificial life" simulators have too much focus on beating more continuous population mechanics, and lack the discrete elements which he feels could be important to AGI: Section "The missing link between continuous and discrete AI".
There is great interest in this direction of research however quite clearly.
Appears to be closed source unfortunately, so not suitable for research.
Video 4. "What will happen after 100h of evolution? by The Bibites (2022)" mentions it was started five years ago, so circa 2017.
Was not very Linux compatible: www.reddit.com/r/TheBibites/comments/vqk6ac/program_stalls_at_a_blue_screen/ Trying to run 0.5.0 leads to a blank screen after you click "start simulation".
This channel contains several 2D continuous simulations and explains AI techniques used.
They have several interesting multiagent game ideas.
Ciro became mildly jealous of this channel when he found out about it, because at 800k subscribers at the time, the creator is likely able to make a living off of it, something which Ciro thought impossible.
As of 2022 he was at 1.6M followers with only 17 videos! Of course, much of those videos is about the software and they require infinite development hours to video time ratios.
Much of this success hinges a large part on the amazing 3D game presentation.
Created by Justin Helps. Awesome name.
To make things better, the generically named channel is also the title of one of the best films of al time: Primer (2004).
Creator of Primer
youtube.fandom.com/wiki/Primer gives real identity:
Feels exactly the background you'd expect: disilusioned by the educational system, and working to make education better! Great guy! Reminds Ciro Santilli of himself a bit.
Face reveal at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=QC91Bf8hQVo
For the act, see: sex.
It is not obvious why there have to be two sexes.
Sex itself is obvious: by mixing genes we increase variability.
But having two sexes rather than just being able to reproduce with anyone reduces the possible mating pool by half!
One of the key thesis of Power, Sex, Suicide by Nick Lane (2006).
Also mentioned at:
Analects translation by Robert Eno (2015) 16.7:
A signal that indicates that an animal is ready for mating.
Ciro Santilli is for abortion rights of women, until very late in pregnancy.
But it's not something that he would do himself, unless under extreme cases.
This is notably considering that drug-led organized crime completely dominates and corrupts the politics of many production and trafficking zones, which are already generally poor fucked up places to start with:São Remo, the favela next to USP, although much less extreme than the above, also come to mind.
Drug traffic corrupts everything. It prevents development of honest people. It is a cancer, which we have failed time and time a gain to cure. The only cure is to accept the other less insidious of addiction.
- How to Fix a Drug Scandal (2020) gives a good sense of the relentlessness of the drug war, and how it affects people who are already poor the most
- 100 Greatest Discoveries by the Discovery Channel (2004-2005)
- The best articles by Ciro Santilli
- Bert Hubert
- Ciro Santilli's Homepage
- De novo DNA synthesis
- Human brain
- Molecular biology technologies
- Natural science
- How to use an Oxford Nanopore MinION to extract DNA from river water and determine which bacteria live in it
- Project to explain each Nobel Prize better