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  • 3 Gbps
  • 20k genes
  • 37.2 trillion cells[ref]
gunzip --keep GRCh38_latest_genomic.fna.gz

Human evolution

words: 62 articles: 4
The key cladograms:
Video 1. When We Took Over the World by PBS Eons (2019) Source.
Video 2. When We Met Other Human Species by PBS Eons (2019) Source.
Video 3. How Humans Lost Their Fur by PBS Eons (2020) Source. Says it is linked to bipedalism to help hunting in hot weather. But could only happen fully after the invention of fire, otherwise you'd be too cold at night.

Human body

words: 202 articles: 27

Human cell type

words: 11 articles: 4

Human immortalised cell line

words: 11 articles: 2
The point of these is that they are good for transfection apparently.

Human molecular biology

words: 191 articles: 20

Human genome

words: 191 articles: 18
20k genes, 3 billion base pairs. We can handle this!!!
Human genetic variation
words: 50 articles: 3
This is really cool. Ciro Santilli would be tempted to participate, but his wife is not a fan, in part due to the loss of privacy of children. Maybe she is right...
Someone should implement a version of that where you can upload your privately sequenced genome and get analytics for free.
Human mtDNA
words: 62 articles: 3
This was the first large part of the genome that was sequenced, in 1981: Cambridge Reference Sequence. Presumably they picked it because it is short and does not undergo crossover.
About 16.6 kbp:
TODO: many places say "exactly" 16,569, it seems that variable number tandem repeat are either rare or don't occur!
By Fred Sanger's group.
Published as: sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome by Sanger et al. (1981).
Human genome sequencing project
words: 47 articles: 4
As mentioned by Craig Venter in 100 Greatest Discoveries by the Discovery Channel (2004-2005), the main outcomes of the project were:
  • it established the ballpark number of human genes
  • showed that human genomes are very similar across individuals.
Important predecessors:
This was one of the first notable country-led large scale sequencing efforts of the world.
Sample paper:
Human protein
words: 23 articles: 2
UniProt human: It is interesting to see in the Mutagenesis how many known mutations can increase or decrease SARS-CoV-2 S protein binding affinity.
Receptor in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.
words: 2
Receptor in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry.


articles: 1



  1. Australopithecine
  2. Ape subclade
  3. Ape
  4. Simian subclade
  5. Simian
  6. Primate subclade
  7. Primate
  8. Placentalia subclade
  9. Placentalia
  10. Theria subclade
  11. Theria
  12. Mammal subclade
  13. Mammal
  14. Synapsid subclade
  15. Synapsid
  16. Amniote subclade
  17. Amniote
  18. Tetrapod subclade
  19. Tetrapod
  20. Fish subclade
  21. Fish
  22. Vertebrate
  23. Chordate subclade
  24. Chordate
  25. Animal subclade
  26. Animal
  27. Eukarya subclade
  28. Eukaryote
  29. Species
  30. Taxonomy
  31. Biology
  32. Natural science
  33. Science
  34. Ciro Santilli's Homepage