Ciro Santilli
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Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) | 🗖 nosplit | ↑ parent "Electron microscope" | 148

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This technique has managed to determine protein 3D structures for proteins that people were not able to crystallize for X-ray crystallography.
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It is said however that cryoEM is even fiddlier than X-ray crystallography, so it is mostly attempted if crystallization attempts fail.
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We just put a gazillion copies of our molecule of interest in a solution, and then image all of them in the frozen water.
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Each one of them appears in the image in a random rotated view, so given enough of those point of view images, we can deduce the entire 3D structure of the molecule.
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Figure 70. Image showing This is the type of image that you get out of a raw CryoEM experiment. Source.
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