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Madelung energy ordering rule

| 🗖 nosplit | ↑ parent "Aufbau principle" | words: 156 | descendant words: 156 | descendants: 1
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Looking at the energy level of the Schrodinger equation solution for the hydrogen atom, you would guess that for multi-electron atoms that only the principal quantum number would matter, azimuthal quantum number getting filled randomly.
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However, orbitals energies for large atoms don't increase in energy like those of hydrogen due to electron-electron interactions.
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In particular, the following would not be naively expected:
  • 2s fills up before 2p. From the hydrogen solution, you might guess that they would randomly go into either one as they'd have the same energy
  • in potassium fills up before 3d, even though it has a higher principal quantum number!
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This rule is only an approximation, there exist exceptions to the Madelung energy ordering rule.
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Ancestors

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