As of the 20th century, this can be described well as "the phenomena described by Maxwell's equations".

Back through its history however, that was not at all clear. This highlights how big of an achievement Maxwell's equations are.

## Ancestors

## Incoming links

- Aharonov-Bohm effect
- Derivation of the quantum electrodynamics Lagrangian
- Gauge theory
- General relativity
- Lamb-Retherford experiment
- Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime
- Quantum chromodynamics
- Quantum electrodynamics
- What does it mean that photons are force carriers for electromagnetism?
- Yang-Mills existence and mass gap
- Zartman Ko experiment