This is the true key question: what are the most important algorithms that would be accelerated by quantum computing?
The most comprehensive list is the amazing: https://quantumalgorithmzoo.org/ which is on GitHub: https://github.com/stephenjordan/stephenjordan.github.io
Maybe there is some room for doubt because some applications might be way better in some implementations, but we should at least have a good general idea.
However, clear information on this really hard to come by, not sure why.
Whenever asked e.g. at: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/3390/can-anybody-provide-a-simple-example-of-a-quantum-computer-algorithm/3407 on Physics Stack Exchange people say the infinite mantra:
Ciro Santilli wonders if there is any understandable algorithm that meets the above criteria.
The area that Ciro and many people are te most excited about is quantum computing computational chemistry algorithms.