Ciro Santilli $£ Sponsor €¥ 中国独裁统治 China Dictatorship 新疆改造中心、六四事件、法轮功、郝海东、709大抓捕、2015巴拿马文件 邓家贵、低端人口、西藏骚乱
Contains the first sporadic groups discovered by far: 11 and 12 in 1861, and 22, 23 and 24 in 1973. And therefore presumably the simplest! The next sporadic ones discovered were the Janko groups, only in 1965!
Each is a permutation group on elements. There isn't an obvious algorithmic relationship between and the actual group.
TODO initial motivation? Why did Mathieu care about k-transitive groups?
Their; k-transitive group properties seem to be the main characterization, according to Wikipedia:
  • 22 is 3-transitive but not 4-transitive.
  • four of them (11, 12, 23 and 24) are the only sporadic 4-transitive groups as per the classification of 4-transitive groups (no known simpler proof as of 2021), which sounds like a reasonable characterization. Note that 12 and 25 are also 5 transitive.
Looking at the classification of k-transitive groups we see that the Mathieu groups are the only families of 4 and 5 transitive groups other than symmetric groups and alternating groups. 3-transitive is not as nice, so let's just say it is the stabilizer of and be done with it.