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The size of a set.
For finite sizes, the definition is simple, and the intuitive name "size" matches well.
But for infinity, things are messier, e.g. the size of the real numbers is strictly larger than the size of the integers as shown by Cantor's diagonal argument, which is kind of what justifies a fancier word "cardinality" to distinguish it from the more normal word "size".
The key idea is to compare set sizes with bijections.