TODO what is the point of them? Why not just sum over every index that appears twice, regardless of where it is, as mentioned at: www.maths.cam.ac.uk/postgrad/part-iii/files/misc/index-notation.pdf.

Vectors with the index on top such as $x_{i}$ are the "regular vectors", they are called covariant vectors.

Those in indices on bottom are called contravariant vectors.

It is possible to change between them by Raising and lowering indices.

The values are different only when the metric signature matrix is different from the identity matrix.